This Day in History - October 9

October 9

28 BC – The Temple of Apollo is dedicated on the Palatine Hill in Rome

1470 – Henry VI of England is restored to the throne

1547 – Miguel de Cervantes, the author of Don Quixote, is baptized in Alcala de Heraves, Spain

1635 – Religious dissident Roger Williams is banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony by the general court for speaking out against the right of civil authorities to punish religious dissension and to confiscate Indian land

1760 – Austrian and Russian troops enter Berlin to loot and burn structures

1775 – During the Revolutionary War, General Sir William Howe writes to the British appointed secretary of state for the American colonies, Lord Dartmouth, to inform him that he felt the British army should be evacuated from Boston to Rhode Island, and from there, North Carolina

1779 – In reaction to machinery for spinning cotton, the Luddite riots begin in Manchester, England

1781 – Americans begin shelling the British surrounded at Yorktown

1825 – The first Norwegian immigrants to America arrive on the sloop Restaurationen

1837 – Educator, Francis Parker, is born

1859 – French artillery officer who is falsely accused of giving French military secrets to foreign powers, Alfred Dreyfus, is born

1863 – Confederate cavalry raiders return to Chattanooga after attacking Union General William Rosecrans’ supply and communication lines around Tennessee during the Civil War

1864 – During the Civil War, Union cavalry defeats Confederate soldiers during the Battle of Tom’s Brook in Virginia

1869 – President Ulysses Grant announces the death of former president Franklin Pierce

1873 – “The father of the modern drugstore,” Charles Rudolph Walgreen, is born

1879 – German physicist, Max von Laue, is born

1888 – Robert Mills’ Washington Monument opens to the public

1888 – Russian politician, Nikolai Bukharin, is born

1899 – US historian and journalist, Bruce Catton, is born

1909 – French actor and director, Jacques Tati, is born

1914 – After a 12-day siege, Germans take Antwerp, Belgium

1915 – Austro-Hungarian forces capture the Serbian capital of Belgrade

1934 – In Marseilles, a Macedonian revolutionary associated with Croat terrorists in Hungary assassinate King Alexander of Yugoslavia and French Foreign Minister Louis Barthou while they were on tour of European capitals in quest of an alliance against Nazi Germany. The murders bring the threat of war between Yugoslavia and Hungary, but confrontation is prevented by the League of Nations

1934 – The St. Louis Cardinals defeat the Detroit Tigers in the seventh game of the World Series

1936 – The Hoover Dam begins transmitting electricity to Los Angeles via power of the Colorado River

1940 – Musician, singer, and songwriter, John Lennon, is born

1940 – During the Battle of Britain, the German Luftwaffe launches an air raid on London, bombing St. Paul’s Cathedral. This was monumental as the history of the Cathedral is as follows: a Roman temple to the goddess Diana once stood on Ludgate Hill at the site of St. Paul’s Cathedral. In 604 A.D., King Aethelberht I dedicated the first Christian cathedral there to St. Paul. That cathedral burned, and its replacement was destroyed by Vikings in 962. A third cathedral was destroyed by fire in 1087 and was replaced by a grand Norman structure that was completed in the 13th century. In the 16th century, the fourth cathedral fell into disrepair and was damaged by fire, and further harm was done during the English civil wars of the 17th century. In the 1660s, the English architect Sir Christopher Wren was enlisted to repair the cathedral, but the Great Fire of London intervened, destroying Old St. Paul’s Cathedral in 1666. In the aftermath of the fire, Wren designed a new St. Paul’s Cathedral, with dozens of smaller new churches, ranged around it like satellites. The cathedral was Wren’s masterpiece, featuring a baroque design and a prominent, stately dome. Wren himself set down the foundation block in 1675 and in 1710 put the final stone in place. When the architect died in 1723, he was buried with great ceremony in St. Paul’s. An inscription near his tomb reads, Lector, si monumentum requiris, circumspice–Latin for “Reader, if you seek a monument, look about you.” Many other notable British citizens later joined him in St. Paul’s crypts, including the military heroes Lord Nelson and the Duke of Wellington. St. Paul’s Cathedral became an inspiration to the British people during World War II. In the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe attempted to bomb Britain into submission by hammering London, but St. Paul’s miraculously escaped major bomb damage, even as historic buildings nearby were reduced to rubble. Images of St. Paul’s framed by smoke and fire became a symbol of Britain’s indomitable spirit. Civilian defense brigades, including the St. Paul’s Fire Watch, protected the structure from fire, and at one point an unexploded bomb was removed at great risk from the roof of the cathedral. Despite the damage caused on the night of October 9, 1940, the cathedral survived the Blitz largely intact. In 1944, St. Paul’s bells rang out to celebrate the liberation of Paris

1941 – Journalist and founder of C-SPAN, Brian Lamb, is born

1941 – Politician who resigned during controversy over making remarks that praised Strom Thurmond’s 1948 presidential campaign that had called for preservation of racial segregation, Trent Lott is born

1941 – President Franklin Roosevelt requests congressional approval for arming US merchant ships

1942 – Chicago bootlegger Roger “The Terrible” Touhy escapes from Illinois’ Stateville Prison by climbing the guard’s tower. Touhy had been serving a 99-year sentence for a kidnapping he did not commit, and was essentially framed for by notorious gangster Al Capone, who was jealous of Touhy’s bootlegging operations. Touhy was caught shortly after he escaped and returned to prison. His attorneys successfully persuaded an appeals court that the kidnapping was a hoax and he was released. Three weeks later, as he was entering his sister’s home, Touhy was shot. Before he died, he was reported to have said, “ I’ve been expecting it. The bastards never forget”

1944 – British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin meet for a nine-day conference in Moscow to discuss the war with Germany and the future of Europe during World War II

1946 – Eugene O’Neill’s play The Iceman Cometh opens at the Martin Beck Theatre in New York

1948 – Singer, songwriter, and musician, Jackson Browne, is born

1949 – Harvard Law School begins admitting women

1950 – UN forces led by the First Cavalry Division cross the 38th parallel in South Korea and begin attacking northward towards the North Korean capital of Pyongyang during the Korean War

1958 – Pope Pius XII dies

1963 – A landslide in Italy kills more than 2,000 people when it causes a giant wave of water to overwhelm a dam

1966 – Prime Minister of the UK, David Cameron, is born

1967 – Socialist guerrilla leader Che Guevara is executed by the Bolivian army

1969 – The National Guard is called in break up protests sparked by the trial of the “Chicago Eight”

1969 – English singer, songwriter, guitarist, and producer, PJ Harvey, is born

1970 – The Khmer Republic is proclaimed in Cambodia, and will go on to kill hundreds of thousands of Cambodians via murder in the “killing fields,” exhaustion, hunger or disease

1970 – Swedish golfer, Annika Sorenstam, is born

1974 – Writer, radio host, and figure in Modern Orthodox Judaism, Rabbi Shmuel Herzfeld, is born

1974 – German businessman Oskar Schindler, who is responsible for saving 1,200 Jews from the Holocaust by bribing officials to allow their transfer, as workers of his enamel-works factory, to the Plaszow labor camp thus saving them from the death camps, dies

1975 – Andrei Dmitriyevich Sakharov, the Soviet physicist who helped build USSR’s first hydrogen bomb and then regretted his actions, is awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace for his work trying to end the nuclear arms race

1978 – Belgian actor, singer, and songwriter, Jacques Brel, dies

1979 – Comedian and actor, Chris O’Dowd, is born

1983 – Doo Hwan Chun, president of South Korea, and his cabinet are scheduled to lay a wreath on a monument in Rangoon, Burma but a bomb explodes killing the cabinet. Hwan Chun escaped as he had not yet arrived, but 17 Koreans died and North Korea is blamed

1992 – A meteorite crashes into a Chevy Malibu in Peekskill, New York

1999 – Last flight of the Lockheed SR-71 “Blackbird” stealth reconnaissance aircraft

2001 – Director and choreographer, Herbert Ross, dies

2004 – French philosopher, Jacques Derrida, dies

2006 – North Korea reportedly tests its first nuclear device

Written by Crystal McCann

Crystal is the Chief Operating Officer of Lanterns Media Network and the owner of Madisons Media. She lives in Texas with her husband and dogs and is the proud mother of two adult children.

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