1306 – King Wenceslas of Poland is murdered.
1356 – Edward “the Black Prince” began a raid north from Aquitaine.
1570 – Charles IX of France signs the Treaty of St. Germain, ending the third war of religion and giving religious freedom to the Huguenots.
1636 – The invading armies of Spain, Austria, and Bavaria are stopped at the village of St. Jean-de-Losne, only five miles from France.
1648 – Ibrahim, the sultan of Istanbul, is thrown into prison and then assassinated.
1775 – Captain Daniel Morgan and his Virginia riflemen arrive in Cambridge, Mass during the American Revolution.
1786 – Jacques Balmat and Dr. Michel-Gabriel Paccard become the first men to climb Mont Blanc in France.
1815 – Napoleon Bonaparte set sail for St. Helena, where he would spend the rest of his life in exile.
1818 – Poet, John Keats, returns from a walking tour of the Lakes Districts and Scotland, showing signs of tuberculosis that would kill him. Keats authored “Ode on a Grecian Urn” and “Ode to a Nightingale.”
1827 – Prime Minister of the UK, George Canning, dies.
1839 – A controversial officer in the Plains Indians Wars, Nelson Miles, is born in Massachusetts.
1844 – Brigham Young is chosen to lead the Mormons.
1863 – Confederate General Robert E. Lee sends a letter of resignation as commander of the Army of Northern Virginia to Confederate President Jefferson Davis, in the aftermath of his defeat at Gettysburg, PA during the Civil War.
1865 – Explorer, Matthew A. Henson, is born.
1876 – Thomas Edison patents the mimeograph.
1879 – The leader of peasants and indigenous people to reclaim invaded land from the hands of a rancher during the Mexican revolution, Emiliano Zapata, is born in Anenecuilco, Mexico.
1883 – Mexican revolutionary leader, Emiliano Zapata, is born.
1896 – Author, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, is born.
1899 – A.T. Marshall receives patent for the refrigerator.
1900 – The first Davis Cup series begins in Boston.
1901 – Inventor and Nobel Prize-winning physicist, Ernest Orlando Lawrence, is born.
1908 – Lawyer, Arthur J. Goldberg, is born.
1909 – Australian saint and co-founder of the Sisters of St. Joseph of the Sacred Heart, Mary MacKillop, dies.
1925 – The first national congress of the Ku Klux Klan opens.
1937 – The Japanese Army occupies Beijing.
1937 – Actor, Dustin Hoffman, is born.
1940 – The German Luftwaffe begins series of daylight air raids on Great Britain.
1942 – Six German spies are executed in the U.S. for plotting to attack U.S. civil infrastructure.
1944 – German SS officer, Michael Wittmann, dies.
1945 – The United Nations Charter was signed by President Truman.
1945 – The Soviet Union declared war on Japan during World War II.
1948 - Soviet cosmonaut and the first woman to walk in space, Svetlana Y. Savitskaya is born.
1950 – Whataburger opens in Corpus Christi, TX.
1953 – English race car driver, Nigel Mansell, is born.
1953 – The U.S. and South Korea initiated a mutual security pact.
1956 – Japan launches the largest oil tanker in the world at 780 feet long and 84,730 tons.
1956 – A coal-mine fire kills 262 workers in Marcinelle, Belgium, leading to many policy changes.
1963 – 15 thieves involved in the Great Train Robbery, one of the most famous heists of all time, escape in an ex-British Army truck and two stolen Land Rover four-wheel drive vehicles, taking with them some $7 million in stolen items.
1964 – Author and founding member of TED Global, M. Ashman, is born
1966 – Michael DeBakey became the first surgeon to install an artificial heart pump in a patient.
1968 – Richard Nixon and Spiro Agnew are chosen as the presidential and vice-presidential nominees of the Republican Party.
1969 – Singer, songwriter, and actress, Faye Wong, is born.
1973 – American serial killer, Dean Corll, dies.
1974 – President Nixon announced he would resign the following day.
1978 – The U.S. launches Pioneer Venus II carrying scientific probes to study Venus’ atmosphere.
1981 – Swiss tennis player, Roger Federer, is born.
1981 – Singer-songwriter, Harel Skaat, is born.
1985 – Actress and dancer, Louise Brooks, dies.
1988 – A ceasefire between Iraq and Iran is announced.
1988 – N.W.A.’s Straight Outta Compton is released.
1988 – The Chicago Cubs host the first night game in the history of Wrigley Field.
1989 – The space shuttle Columbia left from Cape Canaveral, FL in what was said to be a “secret five-day military mission.”
1990 – American forces began positioning in Saudi Arabia.
1990 – Iraq annexes the state of Kuwait as its 19th province, six days after Iraqi troops invaded.
1991 – John McCarthy, a British TV producer was released by his Lebanese kidnappers after 5 years in captivity. Rival group abducted Jerome Leyraud in retaliation and threatened to kill him if more hostages were released.
1992 – The “Dream Team” won the gold medal in basketball by beating Croatia in the Barcelona Summer Olympics.
1994 – The first road link between Jordan and Israel opened.
1995 – Saddam Hussein’s two eldest daughters and their husbands, as well as several senior officers defected.
2007 – An EF2 tornado hits Brooklyn, New York, the first in that borough since 1889.
2008 – Georgia invades South Ossetia, setting off a five-day war between Georgia and Russia.